They are controlled by muscles in the forearm. Nerves of the Hand. The carpals… The body tapers from above downward, is convex posteriorly, concave in front from above downward, flat from side to side; its sides are marked by rough which give attachment to the fibrous sheaths of the Flexor tendons. ©1996-2020 MedicineNet, Inc. All rights reserved. They are arranged into annular and cruciate configuration, referred to as the A and C pulleys (Fig. The radial and ulnar nerv… In addition to reading this article, be s… Finger bones are characterized by how near or far they are from the rest of the body. Humans normally have five digits on each extremity. The first bone, closest to the palm, is the proximal phalange; the second bone is the middle phalange; and the smallest and farthest from the hand is the distal phalange. ©2018 WebMD, Inc. All rights reserved. The proximal phalanx provides the base of the finger, which connects to the intermediate phalanx via the knuckle joint. Dislocations of this joint occur when the finger bends too far (hyperextension) and a bone is displaced from its joint. Extensor tendons have little protection on the top of the hands and wrist, and are therefore prone to injury in this area. The first digit is the thumb, followed by index finger, middle finger, ring finger, and little finger or pinky. many everyday See Additional Information. KIN 191B – Advanced Assessment of Upper Extremity Injuries Wrist, Hand and Finger Anatomy The hand also must be coordinated to perform fine motor tasks with precision. Terms of Use. The index, middle, ring, and fifth digits have proximal, middle, and distal phalanges and three hinged joints: distal interphalangeal (DIP), proximal interphalangeal (PIP), and metacarpophalangeal (MCP). The palm includes five metacarpals, and each finger except the thumb contains one proximal phalanx, one middle phalanx, and one distal phalanx. Finger fractures may account for The Anatomy and Mechanics of the Human Hand CRAIG L TAYLOR, Ph.D.,1 AND ROBERT J. SCHWARZ, M.D.2 It is obvious to all that the human hand represents a mechanism of the most intricate fashioning and one of great complexity and utility. How many bones are in the hand and how many are in each division -There are 27 bones in the hand (14 phalanges in each hand, 5 metacarpals in each hand, and 8 carpals in each wrist) How are the digits numbered -Numbered 1-5 laterally to medially 1. treatments differ from others. Adequate strength forms the basis for normal hand function. The three bones in each finger are named according to their relationship to the palm of the hand. Flexor digitorum superficialis, inserting as 2 separate slips onto the base of the middle phalanx. Fingers are essential for completing everyday tasks. The knuckles are joints formed by the bones of the fingers and are commonly Ulnar nerve – palmar and dorsal (back of the hand) surface of the other half of the ring finger and the little finger. A finger is a limb of the human body and a type of digit, an organ of manipulation and sensation found in the hands of humans and other primates. Collateral ligaments sit on both sides of each finger and thumb joint, providing stability. The next knuckle out toward the There are no muscles in the fingers; between the hand and the fingers - the metacarpophalangeal joint (MCP). The volar plate is a fibrous ligamentous structure located at the palmar side of the hand. Fingers numbered anatomy. Each consists of a body and two extremities. The number of digits in mammals varies greatly. The thumb collateral ligament, known as the ulnar collateral ligament, is prone to tearing if the thumb is bent backward. 2. Finger movement is controlled by muscles in the forearms that pull on finger tendons. The structures that form and move the hand require proper alignment and control in order for normal hand function to occur. The thumb does not have a middle phalange. Normally humans have five digits, termed phalanges, on each hand (exceptions are polydactyly, hypodactyly and digit loss). This first joint at the base of the finger is called the metacarpophalangeal joint (MCP). The anatomy of the finger is complex, but a basic knowledge is necessary to properly treat acute injuries. Tip segment: Distal phalanx. Most often flexor tendon injuries result from accidental trauma. These ligaments keep the finger joints from bending sideways. Finger Flexors There are 2 flexor tendons of the fingers: 1. The thumb has two knuckle joints. Middle segment: Middle phalanx. Usually this is caused by falling on one's hand. activities, they are at higher risk than other parts of the body for traumatic injury, including sports injuries, workplace injuries, and other accidents. The subsequent bone next to the proximal phalange is the middle phalanx. Few structures of the human anatomy are as unique as the hand. Each joint rests in a volar plate (a ligament), which helps stabilize the joint. Tendons connect muscles to bones. The hand skeleton is composed of 27 bones and is divided into three parts from the forearm to the extremity of the hand. The phalanges are fourteen in number, three for each finger, and two for the thumb. bone is the middle phalange; and the smallest and farthest from the hand is the and François Moutet2 (1) Marseille, France (2) Grenoble, France 2.1 Bone Structure Photo 2.1 2.1.1 Structures The hand is connected to the forearm through the carpal area forming the wrist. The thumb has 2 phalanges and the fingers have 3. The hand needs to be mobile in order to position the fingers and thumb. Metacarpal IV – Ring finger. The first digit is the thumb, followed by index finger, middle finger, ring finger, and little fingeror pinkie. and fingers move by the pull of The farthest joint of the finger is the distal inter-phalangeal joint (DIP). up to 10% of all bone fractures. The fingers (or digits of the hand) are numbered from one to five, beginning with the thumb. The ringer finger is comprised of three phalanges, or bones, extending from the hand's fourth metacarpal bone. The finger bone segments (the scientific name for the finger bones is carpals) are named phalanges:. Understanding the basic anatomy of the hand and fingers is useful in Observation: The bend in the fingers gives the straight hand a more compact appearance so that we can actually tightly close the gaps between the fingers. Fingers are one of the most used appendages, and the most delicate, so they are prone to injury. home The bone closest to the palm is called the proximal phalanx . MRI Anatomy of Pulley System The flexor tendons of second through fifth fingers are contained within fibroosseous digital sheaths that extend from the distal palm to the distal phalanges. Human fingers normally have a nail at the distal phalanx. They are all considered digits. traumatic injuries seen in an emergency room. The thumb does not have a middle phalanx. Dislocation of the PIP joint is a common injury for athletes. Bottom segment: Proximal phalanx Back from Finger Names to Hand Gestures Back to Body Language Homepage Each finger contains 3 joints, more commonly known as knuckles. joint (PIP). In the horse only the third digit remains, covered at the tip by a single hoof. The thumb does not have a middle phalange. The phalanges refer to the miniature long bones within the fingers. Except for the thumb, each finger has three phalanges – the distal (the bone on the tip of the finger), middle and proximal (the bone at the base of the finger) phalanx. phalanges (bones). This type of injury makes it hard to squeeze things between the thumb and forefinger. Each finger has 3 phalanges (bones) and 3 hinged joints; the thumb has two of each. (avulsion) injury. Finger injuries have the potential to slow down anyone. The anatomy of the hand is incomplete without understanding the wrist. Normally humans have five digits, the bones of which are termed phalanges, on each hand, although some people have more or fewer than five due to congenital disorders such as polydactyly or oligodactyly, or accidental or medical amputations. In clinical notes the fingers should be identified by name rather than by number: thumb (pollex), and index, middle, ring, and little fingers. We have 10 fingers and not 8 fingers and 2 thumbs. Clinically, the annular A pulleys are by far the most important and these are numbered A1–5. The extensor digitorum muscle extends this finger, while the palmarand dorsal interossei flex the finger and move it toward and away from the middle finger. Fingers have a complex anatomy. The strongest ligament in the PIP joint is the volar plate. Hypothesis: Without the bend small gaps would remain between the tip and the first joint of the fingers unless we press the fingers together with force. One may also ask, how are fingers numbered in anatomy? Injuries to this joint usually involve a fracture or torn tendon Metacarpal III – Middle finger. The picture below is of the annular and cruciate pulleys holding the tendons of flexor digitorum profundus and … joint commonly is injured in closed-fist activities and is commonly known as a fingernail is the proximal inter-phalangeal A boxer's fracture is a common injury of this joint that can occur when a closed fist strikes a person or object. According to different definiti… The metacarpal bones articulate proximally with the carpals, and distally with the proximal phalanges. It works like a hinge when you straighten your fingers and thumb. Each finger has 3 phalanges (bones) and 3 hinged joints; the thumb has two of each. Cruciate pulleys:which are paired and cross diagon… Finger bone segments. So the thumb is considered a finger for the most part. Pulleys The flexor tendons are secured in place by a series of pulleys which are fibrous bands wrapping over the tendons and attaching to the bone. In this episode of eOrthopodTV, orthopaedic surgeon, Randale C. Sechrest, MD narrates an animated tutorial on anatomy of the hand. eMedicineHealth does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Extensor tendons connect to muscles in the middle of the forearm, then extend through the wrist and hand to each finger, where they form the extensor hood. home/ image collection a-z list/ finger anatomy picture article. The digits of the upper limb, the fingers, are numbered from 1 to 5 beginning with the thumb (also known as the pollex). Fingers are constructed of ligaments (strong supportive tissue connecting Key: a. buccal c. cephalic e. patellar b. calcaneal d. digital f. scapular 1. cheek 4. anterior aspect of knee 2. the fingers 5. heel of foot 3. shoulder blade region 6. the head 2. Finger injuries have the potential to slow down anyone. The pulley system is important for keeping the flexor tendons close to the phalanges to maximize their ability to flex the fingers. Annular pulleys:which wrap transversely over the tendons. Match each of the numbered descriptions with the related term in the key. ; The median nerve supplies sensation to the radial 3 and a half fingers on the palmar aspect, as well as the nail beds. In clinical notes the fingers should be identified by name rather than by number : thumb (pollex), and index, middle, ring, and little fingers . Finger Anatomy: Fingers are easily injured, and broken fingers are some of the most common 2. The extensor hood covers the top of the finger, connecting to the middle and distal phalanges. The first and largest knuckle is the junction When fingers joints straighten, they are being pulled by the extensor tendons. Fingers have a complex anatomy. image collection gallery list. The thumb has a distal and proximal phalanx as well as an interphalangeal and MCP joint. Flexor tendons are a group of nine long tendons that extend from the forearm through the wrist, splitting up in the palm. ©1996-2021 MedicineNet, Inc. All rights reserved. The ulnar nerve (C8-T1) supplies all of the intrinsic muscles of the hand, apart from the muscles of the thenar eminence and the radial two lumbricals (these muscles are supplied by the median nerve (C5-T1). The cruciate pulleys are located in between each of the annular pulleys and are numbered C0 to C3 with C1 being the most proximal and C3 being the most distal. Numbered A1 - A4 (see below). Fingers have a complex anatomy. The thumb doesn’t have a … Because fingers are used for understanding different types of finger injuries, broken fingers, and how some The digital sheaths are lined by parietal synovium, which is reflected on the surface of the tendon as visceral synovium. So the thumb is considered a finger for the most part. The skin of the fingers are supplied by different nerves as follows : Median nerve – palmar surface, tips and nail beds of the thumb, index, middle and half of the ring fingers. The terms thenar and hypothenar are adjectives referring to the "ball" of the thumb and little finger, respectively. The fingers (or digits of the hand) are numbered from one to five, beginning with the thumb. Metacarpal II – Index finger. object directly strikes the finger. In those with five digits (e.g., primates, raccoons), the thumb has two phalanges; all other digits have three. Flexor tendon injuries are particularly debilitating, as they leave patients struggling with many daily tasks that require either fine motor skills or grip strength, depending on the injury. Kin 191 B – Wrist, Hand And Finger Anatomy 1. A finger is a type of digit, an organ of manipulation and sensation found in the hands of humans and other primates.. distal phalange. Each phalanx in a finger is named according to its location. Flexors: The collateral ligaments (= parallel connective tissue bands) and volar plate provide much of the stabilization of the MCP joints and IP joints. The joint closest to the fingertip is called the distal interphalangeal joint (DIP). But beyond this it … The fifth digit and smallest of the fingers is the digitus minimus manus. The largest joint of each finger lies between the finger and the hand. MedicineNet does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Terms of Use. Each digit is formed by several bones called phalanges, surrounded by soft tissue. Ligaments connect finger bones and help keep them in place. This joint may be dislocated in sporting events when a ball or Metacarpal V – Little finger. The phenomenon of polydactyly occurs when extra digits are present; fewer digits than normal are also possible, for instance in ectrodactyly. All the fingers have 3 phalanges except the thumb which has 2 phalanges. This complex structure connects the entire hand to the radius and ulna, facilitates the passage of tendons together with the above mentioned neurovascular structures from the forearm to the hand, and permits us to exploit all its movements. The joints sit in volar plates (collateral ligaments attached to dense fibrous connective tissue), which provide joint stabil… The FDS flexes the PIP joint, while the FDP flexes the DIP joint. injured or dislocated with trauma to the hand. The three bones in each finger are named according to their relationship to the palm of the hand. This ligament tightens when the PIP joint straightens, and keeps the PIP joint from bending too far back. The final bone, which is smallest and furthest from the hand, is called the distal phalanx. Two flexor tendons go to each finger: the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) and the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP). first bone, closest to the palm, is the proximal phalange; the second This In cattle and other split-hoofed animals, digits three and four remain. Ligaments connect finger bones and help keep them in place. Fingernail: A fingernail is produced by living skin cells in the finger. 15.7). boxer's fracture. forearm muscles on the tendons. Flexor digitorum profundus, inserting onto the distal phalanx. The hand has a complex anatomy; below is a summary on flexors and extensors of the fingers. The middle finger joint is called the proximal interphalangeal joint (PIP). They are numbered, and each associated with a digit: Metacarpal I – Thumb. At the end of the finger, the distal phalanx provides support to the sensitive pulp of the fingertip. bone to bone), tendons (attachment tissue from muscle to bone), and three  11 Surface Anatomy 1. See additional information. The They are all considered digits. Tendons allow fingers to pinch, grasp, grip, and straighten. Considered a finger is a common injury for athletes s… humans normally have digits! The radial and ulnar nerv… the anatomy of the finger and the most part and broken fingers one... Digits on each extremity with trauma to the phalanges are fourteen in number, three for finger... 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Sechrest, MD narrates an animated tutorial on anatomy of fingers. Called the proximal phalanges with fingers numbered anatomy proximal phalange is the volar plate ( a )! Seen in an emergency room are prone to tearing if the thumb has 2 phalanges and the and... Fingers are easily injured, and each associated with a digit: metacarpal –... You straighten your fingers and 2 thumbs finger Flexors There are 2 flexor tendons to. Finger bones and help keep them in place are numbered from one to five, fingers numbered anatomy the!