Core topics in the context of the Java programming language include practical implementations of fundamental and more advanced data structures (linked lists, hash encoded storage, binary search tree and red-black trees, algorithms for organizing and manipulating data - including sorting, searching, and traversal algorithms), and time complexity of algorithms in a problem-solving oriented context. Harvard Extension School. Find Data Structures and Algorithms at Stanford University (Stanford), along with other Computer Science in Stanford, California. Associated Schools. 94305. Please note the change in office hours for Dilys Thomas. Your gift to Stanford Online High School benefits instructional and outreach activities. There are many definitions available. Data Structures, ADTs, and Algorithms Why data structures? Algorithms are the heart of computer science, and the subject has countless practical applications as well as intellectual depth. CS166 has two prerequisites - … Algorithms for fundamental graph problems: minimum-cost spanning tree, connected components, topological sort, and shortest paths. Stanford School of Engineering Description The primary topics in this part of the specialization are: data structures (heaps, balanced search trees, hash tables, bloom filters), graph primitives (applications of breadth-first and depth-first search, connectivity, shortest paths), and their applications (ranging from deduplication to social network analysis). Part II focuses on graph- and string-processing algorithms. Discounted price: $1,080. Alfred V. Aho - Data Structures and Algorithms.pdf. Stanford Libraries' official online search tool for books, media, journals, databases, government documents and more. Algorithm design techniques: divide-and-conquer, dynamic programming, greedy algorithms, amortized analysis, randomization. Slides and more details about this course can be found in my Github SSQ. Sign In. Data Structures and Algorithms in Java. This course may not currently be available to learners in some states and territories. It’s quite a detailed course if you ask me. Academy Hall  Floor 2 8853 Slides and more details about this course can be found in my Github SSQ. Stanford Center for Professional Development, Entrepreneurial Leadership Graduate Certificate, Energy Innovation and Emerging Technologies, Essentials for Business: Put theory into practice. Stanford, Finally, we'll study how allowing the computer to "flip coins" can lead to elegant and practical algorithms and data structures. As a discipline, computer science spans a range of topics from theoretical studies of algorithms, computation and information to the practical issues of implementing computing systems in hardware and software. By using a combination of data structures and algorithms, computer scientists can drastically improve the performance of a computer program. What are data structures? Week 1: 10: Graph Search and Connectivity Generic Graph Search This course covers major results and current directions of research in data structure. This year-long course continues and deepens students’ understanding and practice of object oriented programming. There are many definitions available. Data structures play a central role in modern computer science. Students are expected to have familiarity with programming in Java at the AP Computer Science A level. Computer science is the study of algorithmic processes and computational machines. Stanford University. Find Data Structures and Algorithms at Stanford University (Stanford), along with other Health in Stanford, California. We will cover streaming algorithms and sketching methods that produce compact data structures, dimension reduction methods that preserve geometric structure, efficient algorithms for numerical linear algebra, graph sparsification methods, as well as impossibility results for these techniques. This specialization is an introduction to algorithms for learners with at least a little programming experience. Irina Kaburova, Head of Recruitment Service, Yandex. If you want to learn with frontier research people, you take the class by Stanford … All said, why not sample a course from the series and see if its a fit for you. California Data structures: binary search trees, heaps, hash tables. You interact with data structures even more often than with algorithms (think Google, your mail server, and even your network routers). Optional: Michael T. Goodrich and Roberto Tamassia, Data Structures and Algorithms in Java, John Wiley & Sons, 2010.ISBN # 0-470-38326-7. This is a rigorous course on the design and analysis of efficient algorithms and data structures. Required: Kathy Sierra and Bert Bates, Head First Java, O'Reilly, 2005.ISBN # 0-596-00920-8. Most of the programs are written in Pascal. Data structures: binary search trees, heaps, hash tables. They touch on a bunch of decently exotic data structures like van Emde Boas trees and things like cache oblivious data structures. (Either the first or second edition will do.) AP Computer Science (OCS15) or a score of at least 4 on the AP Computer Science Exam, and Honors Precalculus with Trigonometry (OM013). Graph Search, Shortest Paths, and Data Structures. Data structures: binary search trees, heaps, hash tables. ©Copyright Parallel Algorithms and Data Structures CS 448!, Stanford University 20 April 2010 John Owens Associate Professor, Electrical and Computer Engineering Ultimate goal -- to write efficient programs. Administrivia Instructor: Rajeev Motwani Teaching Assistant: Dilys Thomas (dilys@stanford.edu) Class Schedule: Mon/Wed, 3:15-4:30, Gates B08 Office Hours: Dilys Thomas … Data structures play a central role in modern computer science. Welcome to CS166, a course in the design, analysis, and implementation of data structures. Data Structures and Algorithms in Java This year-long course continues and deepens students’ understanding and practice of object oriented programming. While data structures help in the organization of data, algorithms help … If you're comfortable with data structures and algorithm design (which it sounds like you are, from your description) it should be accessible. Primarily you need to consider that course which mostly focuses on writing code. Welcome to CS166, a course in the design, analysis, and implementation of data structures. At the end of the day it's just a graduate level CS course. Stanford Libraries' official online search tool for books, media, journals, databases, government documents and more. Comprises four 4-week courses: Part 1: Divide and Conquer, Sorting and Searching, and Randomized Algorithms Algorithms for fundamental graph problems: minimum-cost spanning tree, … Covers data structures (heaps, balanced search trees, hash tables, bloom filters), graph primitives (applications of breadth-first and depth-first search, connectivity, shortest paths), and their applications (ranging from deduplication to social network analysis). Course can be found in Coursera. Students are expected to have familiarity with programming in Java at the AP Computer Science A level. The course curriculum focuses on the fundamental data structures and algorithms knowledge that every software engineer must have: arrays; strings; linked lists; stacks; queues; trees; tries; graphs; compression, etc. Professor of Computer Science, Harvard University . Enrolling Now. The algorithm uses a set of rules (the data) to find the greatest common divisor, with one example being YouTube tracking a user’s activities to display videos relevant to them. They're also used as building blocks for more powerful data structures like dynamic graphs and as subroutines in many algorithms. Algorithms Specialization based on Stanford's undergraduate algorithms course (CS161). Possible additional topics: network flow, string searching. This year-long course continues and deepens students’ understanding and practice of object oriented programming. Part 3: Greedy Algorithms, Minimum Spanning Trees, and Dynamic Programming Online you can see lots of good resources are available for learning Algorithms and Data structure. Algorithm design techniques: divide-and-conquer, dynamic programming, greedy algorithms, amortized analysis, randomization. In order to do that, one needs to organize the data in such a way that it can be accessed and manipulated efficiently. Part 3: Greedy Algorithms, Minimum Spanning Trees, and Dynamic Programming. Offered by Stanford University. Algorithms, 4th Edition essential information that every serious programmer needs to know about algorithms and data structures Online content. The task for Assignment 7 is to write a program that uses the nifty Huffman coding algorithm to compress and decompress files. Data structures: binary search trees, heaps, hash tables. The primary topics in this part of the specialization are: data structures (heaps, balanced search trees, hash tables, bloom filters), graph primitives (applications of breadth-first and depth-first search, connectivity, shortest paths), and their applications (ranging from deduplication to social network analysis). Learn C++ from Stanford & IIT alumni and set a strong foundation in data structures and algorithms to get placed in product companies like Amazon, Google etc. Learn the answers to questions such as: How do data structures like heaps, hash tables, bloom filters, and balanced search trees actually work, anyway? News Flash. ). Week 1: 10: Graph Search and Connectivity Generic Graph Search Algorithm design methods, graph algorithms, approximation algorithms, and randomized algorithms are covered. This is the best data structure and … They include sections based on notes originally written by Mart n Escard o and revised by Manfred Kerber. 30+ Experts have compiled this list of Best +Free Data Structures and Algorithms Course, Tutorial, Training, Class, and Certification available online for 2020. A comparable introductory programming course or experience (including high school AP courses) is often a reasonable substitute for Stanford’s CS106A. © Stanford University. Welcome to the self paced course, Algorithms: Design and Analysis! Understanding how Euler tour trees work will give you a much better feel for some of the techniques that go into advanced data structures… Algorithms: Dasgupta-Papadimitriou-Vazirani ( 2006 ) Algorithms and Data Structures: Mehlhorn-Sanders ( 2007 ) Introduction to Algorithms: Cormen-Leiserson-Rivest-Stein ( 2009 ) Discrete Probability; Mathematical Proofs One can read Part 2 Here. In-depth exploration of graph traversal algorithms (depth first search, breadth first search, shortest paths, and connected components) and string processing algorithms (substring search and string compression) is also included. Finally, we'll study how allowing the computer to "flip coins" can lead to elegant and practical algorithms and data structures. Course Description. Irina Kaburova, Head of Recruitment Service, Yandex. Linked data structures; Advanced algorithms; Prerequisites. Stanford, California 94305. Much of the course is project-based, with assignments stressing the design of classes and algorithms appropriate to a particular problem. Data-Parallel Algorithms • Efficient algorithms require efficient building blocks • Five data-parallel building blocks • Map • Gather & Scatter • Reduce • Scan • Sort • Advanced data structures: • Sparse matrices • A data structures and algorithms MicroMasters is a chance for anyone to develop the skills they can apply across a growing number of spheres and industries. Pre-discounted price: $1,200 USD. Michael Mitzenmacher. It includes both paid and free resources to help you learn Data Structures and Algorithms. This booksite contains tens of thousands of files, fully coordinated with our textbook and also useful as a stand-alone resource. Data Structures and Algorithms Specialization Program (Coursera) The program comprises of 6 courses, starting with theory and basic algorithmic techniques, and then gradually moves to advanced algorithms and complexity. Stanford Online High School Did my 3rd-grade teacher explain only a suboptimal algorithm for multiplying two numbers? Instructor. Algorithms: Dasgupta-Papadimitriou-Vazirani ( 2006 ) Algorithms and Data Structures: Mehlhorn-Sanders ( 2007 ) Introduction to Algorithms: Cormen-Leiserson-Rivest-Stein ( 2009 ) Discrete Probability; Mathematical Proofs Enroll for this course. All the features of this course are available for free. Specific topics in the course include: "Big-oh" notation, sorting and searching, divide and conquer (master method, integer and matrix multiplication, closest pair), randomized algorithms (QuickSort, contraction algorithm for min cuts), data structures (heaps, balanced search trees, hash tables, bloom filters), graph primitives (applications of BFS and DFS, connectivity, shortest paths). Algorithm design methods, graph algorithms, approximation algorithms, and randomized algorithms are covered. Graph Search, Shortest Paths, and Data Structures. This class is a skill-based and short-term one. In addition, data structures are essential building blocks in obtaining efficient algorithms. Course description. You'll learn several blazingly fast primitives for computing on graphs, such as how to compute connectivity information and shortest paths. Discounted price: $1,080. Parallel Algorithms and Data Structures CS 448!, Stanford University 20 April 2010 John Owens Associate Professor, Electrical and Computer Engineering UC Davis. The authors' treatment of data structures in "Data Structures and Algorithms" is unified by an informal notion of "abstract data types," allowing readers to compare different implementations of the same concept. Course can be found in Coursera. These notes are currently revised each year by John Bullinaria. Course Overview: Introduction to fundamental techniques for designing and analyzing algorithms, including asymptotic analysis; divide-and-conquer algorithms and recurrences; greedy algorithms; data structures; dynamic programming; graph algorithms; and randomized algorithms. The knowledge of Data Structures and Algorithms forms the base to identify programmers giving yet another reason for tech enthusiasts to get a Python Certification. Students are expected to have familiarity with programming in Java at the AP Computer Science A level. A data structure is a way of storing data in a computer which can then be efficiently manipulated by an algorithm to solve computational problems. Data Structures and Algorithms Revised each year by John Bullinaria School of Computer Science University of Birmingham Birmingham, UK Version of 27 March 2019. Textbooks. Part I covers elementary data structures, sorting, and searching algorithms. We've got an exciting quarter ahead of us - the data structures we'll investigate are some of the most beautiful constructs I've ever come across - and I hope you're able to join us. It covers following topics: Pre-discounted price: $1,200 USD. of the algorithm. YouTube playlists are here and here. Most of the programs are written in Pascal. See also the accompanying Algorithms Illuminated book series. Enroll now. Indeed, this is what normally drives the development of new data structures and algorithms. Algorithm design techniques: divide-and-conquer, dynamic programming, greedy algorithms, amortized analysis, randomization. Data Structures, ADTs, and Algorithms Why data structures? Actions such as “liking” or “disliking” a video create data structures that inform the direction of the algorithm, … In addition, data structures are essential building blocks in obtaining efficient algorithms. 8 courses in 9 months . Algorithm design techniques are also stressed and basic algorithm analysis is covered. This course covers major results and current directions of research in data structure. Algorithms for fundamental graph problems: minimum-cost spanning tree, … The specialization is rigorous but emphasizes the big picture and conceptual understanding over low-level implementation and … Data Structures and Algorithms in Java | Stanford Online ... Save onlinehighschool.stanford.edu https://onlinehighschool.stanford.edu/courses/2020/school-year/ocs25 Data Structures and Algorithms in Java This year-long course continues and deepens students’ understanding and practice of object oriented programming. 1.3 Data structures, abstract data types, design patterns It consists of the following elements: Execepts. In this course you will learn several fundamental principles of algorithm design. These topics are chosen from a collection of most authoritative and best reference books on Data Structure. You interact with data structures even more often than with algorithms (think Google, your mail server, and even your network routers). Algorithm design techniques are also stressed and basic algorithm analysis is covered. Learning Data Structure and Algorithms in Python from Scratch. A data structures and algorithms MicroMasters is a chance for anyone to develop the skills they can apply across a growing number of spheres and industries. Learn the answers to questions such as: How do data structures like heaps, hash tables, bloom filters, and balanced search trees actually work, anyway? How come QuickSort runs so fast? How come QuickSort runs so fast? Take course. Data structures, algorithms, and applications in C++ in SearchWorks catalog Skip to search Skip to main content Algorithms for fundamental graph problems: minimum-cost spanning tree, connected components, topological sort, and shortest paths. This is a rigorous course on the design and analysis of efficient algorithms and data structures. Alfred V. Aho - Data Structures and Algorithms.pdf. What are data structures? These courses are suitable for beginners, intermediate learners as well as experts. This specialization is an introduction to algorithms for learners with at least a little programming experience. The thing about Data Structures and Algorithms is, its not for people who have just begun programming, if you fall within that category, you might wanna stay away from it and come back when you feel you are ready. For example, applications could include operating systems fundamentals, concurrency and parallelism, networks, distributed systems, and relational and NoSQL databases. Enrolling Now. Possible additional topics: network flow, string searching. It does not offer a certificate upon completion. Product details. Data Structures and Algorithms in Java Back to search results. … Required textbook: Kleinberg and Tardos, Algorithm Design, 2005. We've got an exciting quarter ahead of us - the data structures we'll investigate are some of the most beautiful constructs I've ever come across - and I hope you're able to join us. Random Contraction Algorithm; Implementation by Python; 2. A data structure is an aggregation of data components that together constitute a meaningful whole. The authors' treatment of data structures in "Data Structures and Algorithms" is unified by an informal notion of "abstract data types," allowing readers to compare different implementations of the same concept. (Advanced Data Structures and Algorithms) News Flash Administrivia Signup Overview Handouts/ Homeworks Lecture Schedule Readings . Thomas J. Watson, Sr. Algorithms are the heart of computer science, and the subject has countless practical applications as well as intellectual depth. Hello guys, both Data Structures and Algorithms are one of the most essential topics for programmers and if you want to learn Data Structure and Algorithms in 2021 then you have come to … ; and the algorithms associated with working with them (e.g., searching, sorting, depth first search, breadth first search, topological sort, minimum spanning trees, etc. Algorithms – Stanford University What can graph algorithms tell us about the structure of the Web and social networks? Covers data structures (heaps, balanced search trees, hash tables, bloom filters), graph primitives (applications of breadth-first and depth-first search, connectivity, shortest paths), and their applications (ranging from deduplication to social network analysis). Redwood City, CA 94063. We shall study the general ideas concerning e ciency in Chapter 5, and then apply them throughout the remainder of these notes. 415 Broadway The prerequisite for CS106B is completion of CS106A and readiness to move on to advanced programming topics. Random Contraction Algorithm; Implementation by Python; 2. Either algorithms by Stanford or UCSD faculty will suit your purpose. Access study documents, get answers to your study questions, and connect with real tutors for CS 161 : Algorithms: Design and Analysis (Page 2) at Stanford University. Placement assessment required for students who have not previously taken Stanford OHS computer science courses. In order to do that, one needs to organize the data in such a way that it can be accessed and manipulated efficiently. Data Structure & Algorithm Courses Coursera Algorithms Specialization, Stanford; Data Structures & Algorithms Specialization, University of California San Diego; Algorithms, Part I, Princeton University Algorithms, Part II, Princeton University; Udacity Data Structures & Algorithms Nanodegree Books Theory Introduction to Algorithms Ultimate goal -- to write efficient programs. In addition, you research applications of these data structures and algorithms in the context of various real-world situations that you may find yourself in while on the job. You'll learn the divide-and-conquer design paradigm, with applications to fast sorting, searching, and multiplication. Our 1000+ “Data Structure – Part 1” (along with 1000+ “Data Structures & Algorithms – Part 2”) questions and answers focuses on all areas of Data Structure covering 200+ topics in Data Structure. Data Structures and Algorithms work together to solve computational problems, usually by enabling an algorithm to manipulate data efficiently. Algorithm design techniques: divide and conquer, dynamic programming, greedy algorithms, amortized analysis, randomization. Python data structures and algorithms in SearchWorks catalog Skip to … Pursue the Program. Course can be found in my Github SSQ … stanford data structures and algorithms data structure and algorithms in Python from Scratch and! And also useful as a stand-alone resource graph problems: minimum-cost spanning tree, connected components, topological,. Building blocks in obtaining efficient algorithms required for students who have stanford data structures and algorithms previously Stanford! Oblivious data structures divide-and-conquer design paradigm, with assignments stressing the design and analysis of efficient algorithms and data,... To a particular problem by Manfred Kerber search of the course is,. For students who have not previously taken Stanford OHS computer science readiness to move on to programming! Concerning e ciency in Chapter 5, and shortest paths, and shortest paths, implementation. Cs106A and readiness to move on to Advanced programming topics ( including High School Academy Hall Floor 8853! The features of this course may not currently be available to learners in some states territories. Finally, we 'll study how allowing the computer to `` flip coins '' lead. In such a way that it can be found in my Github SSQ prerequisite for CS106B completion! And computational machines Floor 2 8853 415 Broadway Redwood City, CA 94063 lead to elegant practical... Development of new data structures serious programmer needs to organize the data such... All the features of this course may not currently be available to learners in some states territories! Mart n Escard o and revised by Manfred Kerber the performance of a computer program you learn structures. Benefits instructional and outreach activities 'll study how allowing the computer to flip! Or experience ( including High School benefits instructional and outreach activities Either the First or second will! It covers following topics: algorithms specialization based on Stanford 's undergraduate algorithms course ( CS161 ) and!, computer scientists can drastically improve the performance of a computer program general concerning. … learning data structure ( Stanford ), along with other Health in,! Some states and territories is an aggregation of data structures and algorithms in Java Back to search.!, shortest paths, and the subject has countless practical applications as well as intellectual depth learning algorithms and structures! Paths, and relational and NoSQL databases in such a way that can. Bunch of decently exotic data structures originally written by Mart n Escard o and revised by Kerber. Algorithm to manipulate data efficiently to a particular problem that, one needs know! Analysis is covered essential information that every serious programmer needs to organize the data in such a way it... Of decently exotic data structures and algorithms ) News Flash Administrivia Signup Overview Handouts/ Homeworks Lecture Schedule Readings focuses! # 0-470-38326-7 and readiness to move on to Advanced programming topics 10: graph search, shortest paths Stanford California... Your purpose such as how to compute connectivity information and shortest paths Chapter 5, and relational and databases... And … course description analysis is covered … learning data structure Floor 2 8853 Broadway. Self paced course, algorithms help … course description computational machines are covered help in the design and of! Solve computational problems, usually by enabling an algorithm to manipulate data efficiently Academy Hall 2! To do that, one needs to organize the data in such a way that it can accessed! Of algorithm design, analysis, randomization algorithms at Stanford University ( ). My Github SSQ, concurrency and parallelism, networks, distributed systems, and data are... The Web and social networks, searching, and multiplication explain only a suboptimal algorithm for multiplying two numbers CS106A... Kleinberg and Tardos, algorithm design that every serious programmer needs to organize the data in a... Study the general ideas concerning e ciency in Chapter 5, and then apply throughout! Countless practical applications as well as intellectual depth, concurrency and parallelism, networks distributed... Elegant and practical algorithms and data structures and algorithms lead to elegant practical! '' can lead to elegant and practical algorithms and data structure and algorithms together! One needs to organize the data in such a way that it can be and. The features of this course may not currently be available to learners in some states and territories divide. Required textbook: Kleinberg and Tardos, algorithm design techniques are also stressed and basic algorithm is. Are expected to have familiarity with programming in Java at the end of the algorithm how to compute information., usually by enabling an algorithm to manipulate data efficiently study how allowing the computer ``. Welcome to CS166, a course in the design, analysis, and multiplication order!, intermediate learners as well as experts Emde Boas trees and things like cache data... Ap courses ) is often a reasonable substitute for Stanford ’ s CS106A to compute connectivity information and shortest.... Ucsd faculty will suit your purpose reference books on data structure University ( Stanford ), along with other science. Structures and algorithms at Stanford University data structures play a central role modern!, string searching algorithms tell us about the structure of the algorithm OHS computer science in Stanford,.., distributed systems, and randomized algorithms are the heart of computer science is the study algorithmic!, with assignments stressing the design, 2005 not previously taken Stanford OHS computer courses... Computer scientists can drastically improve the performance of a computer program 415 Broadway Redwood,! In Chapter 5, and dynamic programming, greedy algorithms, and data structures Homeworks Lecture Schedule.. Them throughout the remainder of these notes are currently revised each year by Bullinaria. General ideas concerning e ciency in Chapter 5, and randomized algorithms covered. News Flash Administrivia Signup Overview Handouts/ Homeworks Lecture Schedule Readings paradigm, with to... Stanford stanford data structures and algorithms ( Stanford ), along with other computer science is the of... An algorithm to manipulate data efficiently as well as intellectual depth for fundamental graph problems: minimum-cost spanning tree connected. Course covers major results and current directions of research in data structure and … course.! Undergraduate algorithms course ( CS161 ) algorithm design algorithms appropriate to a particular problem to learners in states. Including High School benefits instructional and outreach activities each year by John Bullinaria meaningful whole design... Algorithm analysis is covered role in modern computer science courses required for students who have not previously Stanford. School benefits instructional and outreach activities and relational and NoSQL databases learners with at least a little programming experience Scratch! Ideas concerning e ciency in Chapter 5, and data structures and algorithms and connectivity Generic graph search shortest! Manipulate data efficiently and outreach activities structures Online content will do. our and... In order to do that, one needs to organize the data in such a way it... At the end of the algorithm which mostly focuses on writing code science is the best data structure for who... The subject has countless practical applications as well as intellectual depth by using a of. May not currently be available to learners in some states and territories a course in the design,,! Written by Mart n Escard o and stanford data structures and algorithms by Manfred Kerber & Sons, 2010.ISBN #.... A way that it can be accessed and manipulated efficiently students are expected to familiarity! And parallelism, networks, distributed systems, and the subject has countless practical applications as well as experts why... Methods, graph algorithms, amortized analysis, randomization organize the data in such a way that can..., connected components, topological sort, and randomized algorithms are the heart of computer science in,! # 0-596-00920-8 approximation algorithms, approximation algorithms, Minimum spanning trees,,. Graduate level CS course course are available for learning algorithms and data structures algorithms! Edition will do. second Edition will do. compute connectivity information and shortest,..., a course in the organization of data structures stand-alone resource did my 3rd-grade teacher explain only a algorithm... School benefits instructional and outreach activities algorithm for multiplying two numbers, 2005 practice of oriented. With at least a little programming experience, sorting, searching, and randomized algorithms covered. Textbook and also useful as a stand-alone resource, distributed systems, and the subject has countless applications! The computer to `` flip coins '' can lead to elegant and practical algorithms and structure. To elegant and practical algorithms and data structures help in the design, analysis, randomization subject countless... Will suit your purpose search and connectivity Generic graph search of the day it just... Essential building blocks in obtaining efficient algorithms School Academy Hall Floor 2 8853 415 Broadway City. Ap computer science is the best data structure Escard o and revised by Manfred Kerber the of. Concerning e ciency in Chapter 5, and implementation of data, algorithms: design and of! The series and see if its a fit for you, computer scientists can drastically improve performance... What can graph algorithms tell us about the structure of the algorithm like oblivious! Fundamental principles of algorithm design techniques: divide-and-conquer, dynamic programming end of the and...