Beginning January 1, 2015: The Montreal Protocol required the U.S. to reduce its consumption of HCFCs by 90% below the U.S. baseline. R-22 is often used as an alternative to the highly ozone-depleting CFC-11 and CFC-12, because of its relatively low ozone depletion potential of 0.055,[4] among the lowest for chlorine-containing haloalkanes. Thereafter R22 would be available only for servicing the old systems. It has received a preliminary A1 designation from ASHRAE, meaning it’s nonflammable and nontoxic. R22 and other commonly used non-flammable refrigerants also start to decompose at around the same temperature at which R32 starts to decompose. A good friend of mine, a good mechanic, and a long-time member of our industry is having his third surgery this week at the burn center in east Georgia to repair the damage done. RS-44b (R453a) is the newest R22 drop-in replacement refrigerant in the U.S. market. R-427A is for use in air conditioning and refrigeration applications. R22 refrigerant, sometimes known as R22 Freon or HCFC-22 Freon, is an environmental danger because it contributes to the depletion of the ozone layer. Notice also the only low GWP refrigerant in common use that achieves an A1 safety classification is CO2. The ozone destruction potential of R22 is only 5% of refrigerant R11, which has the highest ozone destruction potential. CFCs and HCFCs were phased out due to the Chlorine that they contained. The component is non-flammable and not toxic, making it very safe to use in both domestic and industrial conditions. R22 refrigerant is one of the most commonly used refrigerants in the air conditioning systems. R-22 has been mostly phased out in new equipment in the United States under the Montreal Protocol, and has been replaced by other refrigerants with lower ozone depletion potential such as propane (R-290), pentafluoroethane, R-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane), and blended mixtures of HFCs such as R-409A, R-410A, R-438A, and R-507A. It is commonly used as a propellant and refrigerant. R32 is a single component, zero ODP gas with a GWP of 550, significantly less than R410A's 1,980. R-407H is for use in medium- and low-temperature refrigeration applications (supermarkets, cold storage, and process refrigeration); direct expansion system design only. R-422B is for use in low-, medium-, and high-temperature applications. R stands for the refrigerant. If you have a fire in the same space where you are storing freon cylinders, and the temperature gets above 900 degrees Celsius, the freon molecules will move more and more quickly in the cylinder, building up pressure. As a result, heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system manufacturers may not produce new air conditioners and. Copyright © 2020 Bright Hub PM. The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. In 1928, three scientists created the chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) refrigerants. Little odor, colorless as gas or liquid, non toxic, non irritating, non flammable, non corrosive, stable The stuff is flammable! Call 888.735.5651 to learn more about your R22 refrigerant replacement options. Propane was the de facto refrigerant in systems smaller than industrial scale before the introduction of CFCs. R22 will still be available until 2030 and can be obtained as a recycled product (AHRI 700 standard) from A-Gas. Book: Principles of Refrigeration by Roy J Dossat, fourth edition, Prentice Hall. It does not require all the mineral oil to be removed. [9]. Due to its low boiling point this refrigerant was initial developed for the low temperature applications like domestic and farm freezers and in industrial refrigeration applications. R-421A is for use in “air conditioning split systems, heat pumps, supermarket pak systems, dairy chillers, reach-in storage, bakery applications, refrigerated transport, self-contained display cabinets, and walk-in coolers.” Uses mineral oil (MO), Alkylbenzene (AB), and POE. This colorless gas is better known as HCFC-22, or R-22, or CHClF 2. Uses a POE oil. The U.S. government has placed restrictions on R22 and has issued the requirement that R22 refrigerant must be eliminated from use in cooling systems by the year 2020. It’s the key to absorbing and removing heat from a space. R22 is non-toxic and it is non-flammable that makes this refrigerant highly safe for the domestic and industrial purposes. The TXV power element will need to be changed to a 404A/507A element and critical seals (elastomers) may need to be replaced. Allowance holders may only produce or import HCFC-22 to service existing equipment. This page was last edited on 10 January 2021, at 01:13. R-424A is for use in air conditioning as well as medium-temp refrigeration temperature ranges of 20 to 50˚F. These refrigerants are flammable and are only allowed for use in appliances which fulfil the requirements laid down in the latest revision of EN/IEC 60335-2-24. Here's What You Need to Know, 4 Most Common HVAC Issues & How to Fix Them, Commercial Applications & Electrical Projects, Fluid Mechanics & How it Relates to Mechanical Engineering, Hobbyist & DIY Electronic Devices & Circuits, Naval Architecture & Ship Design for Marine Engineers. As an additional environmental concern, R-22 is a powerful greenhouse gas with a GWP equal to 1810 (which indicates 1810 times as powerful as carbon dioxide). As the R22 phase-out continues, it will be important for HVAC technicians to know which refrigerants are suitable replacements and which are not. Uses a POE oil. Worldwide production of R-22 in 2008 was about 800 Gg per year, up from about 450 Gg per year in 1998, with most production in developing countries. R22 refrigerant is easily miscible with the oil at condenser temperature, but at the evaporator temperature it tends to get separated from the oil, however, if the evaporator and the suction piping are designed properly, no such problem occurs. The less stable (i.e. [2] R-22 is a versatile intermediate in industrial organofluorine chemistry, e.g. Since R22 is HCFC it has lesser ozone destruction capability. Physical Properties ASHRAE A1 safety classification Non Flammable & safe to use ODP 0.55 R-422D is for use in low-temp applications, and is mineral oil compatible. The reputation of propane refrigerators as a fire hazard kept delivered ice and the ice box the overwhelming consumer choice despite its inconvenience and higher cost until safe CFC systems overcame the negative perceptions of refrigerators. It works with MO, AB, and POE oils. 3 refrigerants are highly flammable. Hydroplaning Designs. RS-44b has been sold worldwide for the past 5 years, branded as RS-70 outside the US. Since R22refrigerant contributes to the damage to the ozone layer, it is now banned. Hydrogen fluoride has a very foul odour. R22 offers a variety of advantages over previously popular refrigerants, such as ammonia (which is highly toxic and flammable); propane (which is both flammable and explosive); and chlorofluorocarbons or CFCs (which were primarily responsible for ozone layer depletion and are a major greenhouse gas). Manufacturers ensured that their equipment was appropriately designed Even at present R22 is extensively used in the industries for liquefaction of the gases like chlorine, for supplying chilled water to various processes, machines, chillers of central air conditioning systems, etc. Ammonia (R717), popular in the early years of refrigeration, has a GWP of <1 and remains a popular substitute on fishing vessels. These applications are being phased out in developed countries due to the compound's ozone depletion potential (ODP) and high global warming potential (GWP), although global use of R-22 continues to increase because of high demand in This is welcome news for residential HVAC contractors who have long been concerned about the training required to safely adopt flammable refrigerants. Anyways, even minor amount of water in the refrigeration system is undesirable. All Rights Reserved. One of the most common uses of R22 is in the domestic air conditioners like window AC, split AC, packaged AC and also in number of central air conditioning systems. Refrigerant abuse is commonly called “huffing.” The chemical is often inhaled from an appliance, a container, a rag, or a bag with the neck held tightly closed. Propane (R290) is a flammable refrigerant and it is becoming quite popular in small self-contained refrigeration units like vending machines and reach-in coolers. It is not lawful to use in air conditioners, or larger refrigerators because of its flammability and potential for explosion. There are some exceptions, such as the new R1234yf refrigerant, which is mildly flammable but only under certain conditions. These produced the world’s first non-flammable refrigerating fluids, providing safety for the air conditioners used back then. R-407A is for use in low- and medium-temp refrigeration. United States Environmental Protection Agency, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, "Relief in Every Window, but Global Worry Too", Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, "Phaseout of Ozone-Depleting Substances - US EPA", "R22 Replacement refrigerant: ISCEON MO99 refrigerant", https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2017/07/21/2017-15379/protection-of-stratospheric-ozone-determination-33-for-significant-new-alternatives-policy-program, "Frogen® R-22 - Frogen UK: Refrigerant and Cooling Specialists", "Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Adjustments to the Allowance System for Controlling HCFC Production, Import, and Export", Virgin R-22 Allocations Final Rule (April 3, 2013), Specialty Cooling and Heating (Blog) January 22, 2013, Data at Integrated Risk Information System: IRIS 0657, CDC - NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards - Chlorodifluoromethane, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Chlorodifluoromethane&oldid=999410805, Articles with dead external links from January 2018, Articles with permanently dead external links, Pages using collapsible list with both background and text-align in titlestyle, Articles containing unverified chemical infoboxes, All articles with vague or ambiguous time, Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Beginning January 1, 2004: The Montreal Protocol required the U.S. to reduce its consumption of HCFCs by 35% below the U.S. baseline cap. It has one hydrogen atom in its compound and not all the hydrogen atoms from it are replaced by the halocarbons as it happens in chlorofluorohydrocarbons (CFCs). [8], R-458A is for use in air conditioning and refrigeration applications, without capacity or efficiency loss. Do you have an R22 air conditioner (one that uses the old R22 refrigerant that’s being phased out)? Virgin R-22 may not be used in new equipment. R-421A will not operate correctly if mixed with other refrigerants. EPA's analysis indicated the amount of existing inventory was between 22,700t and 45,400t.[11][12][when? For HVAC technicians to know which refrigerants are suitable replacements and which not... The year 2021, complete production of refrigerant R22 is 60 % of required... To cover potential risk originated from the use and phase-out of these blends ( as... More flammable ) a molecule is the closest replacement to R22 that operates with very discharge! 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